Seizures are periods of sustained hyperactivity in the brain. During a seizure, the nerve cells leave their normal activities, in synchronized bursts. Seizures may include muscle spasms, mental confusion, distortion of the senses, dizziness, loss of consciousness, uncontrolled or aimless body movement (e.g. walking, mumbling), incontinence, and vomiting. Generally behaviours experienced during a seizure cannot be recalled afterwards.
- Brain injury (caused by tumour, stroke or trauma)
- Birth trauma
- Poisoning from substance abuse or environmental contaminants, e.g. lead poisoning
- Aftermath of infection, e.g. meningitis
- Alteration in blood sugar, e.g. hypoglycemia
Epilepsy is a disorder of the central nervous system, characterized by spontaneous, repeated seizures, caused by sudden, brief malfunctions of the brain.